redacted. cuban missile crisis.

Secrecy about pub­licly avail­able infor­ma­tion on the Cuban Mis­sile Crisis

The Cuban mis­sile cri­sis was resolved when Pres­i­dent Kennedy secretly agreed to remove Jupiter intermediate-​range bal­lis­tic mis­siles from Turkey along with a pledge not to invade Cuba while Soviet Pre­mier Khrushchev agreed to remove the mis­siles from Cuba. That the Jupiters played a cen­tral role in the cri­sis is a fact avail­able to any col­lege fresh­man read­ing any of the many gen­eral his­to­ries of the Cold War. Yet from the per­spec­tive of Pen­ta­gon offi­cials who review doc­u­ments for release under the Free­dom of Infor­ma­tion Act (FOIA), the fact that the United States had nuclear-​tipped Jupiter mis­siles in Turkey and that they were with­drawn almost 50 years ago is a state secret that can­not be dis­closed even today.

psychiatry. genetics. null field.

The ‘Miss­ing Her­i­tabil­ity’ of Psy­chi­atric Dis­or­ders: Elu­sive Genes or Non-​Existent Genes?

The psy­chi­atric genet­ics field is cur­rently under­go­ing a cri­sis due to the decades-​long fail­ure to uncover the genes believed to cause the major psy­chi­atric dis­or­ders. Since 2009, lead­ing researchers have explained these neg­a­tive results on the basis of the ‘‘miss­ing her­i­tabil­ity’’ argu­ment, which holds that more effec­tive research meth­ods must be devel­oped to uncover pre­sumed miss­ing genes. Accord­ing to the author, prob­lems with the miss­ing her­i­tabil­ity argu­ment include genetic deter­min­ist beliefs, a reliance on twin research, the use of her­i­tabil­ity esti­mates, and the fail­ure to seri­ously con­sider the pos­si­bil­ity that pre­sumed genes do not exist.

video. celestial lights.

Celes­tial Lights from Ole C. Salomon­sen on Vimeo.

For those who do not know, auro­ras are caused by solar activ­ity. This is shortly visu­al­ized in the video. Our suns activ­ity varies in 11 year cycles, and we are clos­ing solar max­i­mum (solar max) for our cur­rent solar cycle some­where between 2012 – 2013, and solar activ­ity has clearly been pick­ing up. The begin­ning of 2011 was lots of clouds but weather improved late 2011 and out 2012. This video con­tains record­ings from some of the most spec­tac­u­lar auro­ral dis­plays I have ever wit­nessed, and I have seen a few.

money. value. coins.

A 1792-​dated cop­per cent, pic­tured here, has sold for $1.15 mil­lion dol­lars, a US auc­tion house said Fri­day. The exper­i­men­tal coin with a sil­ver cen­ter was one of the first ever struck at the United States mint and is one of just 14 known to have sur­vived. (AFP Photo)

US penny sells for $1.15 million

Some 1792-​dated cents have a sil­ver plug as a pro­posed way to over­come a flaw in the Mint Act of 1792,” said Todd Imhof, vice pres­i­dent of Texas-​based Her­itage Auctions.

That con­gres­sional law would have made pen­nies of the era too large and heavy for prac­ti­cal use,” he added. “So the mint’s chief coiner sug­gested mak­ing a smaller sized coin using a tiny sil­ver plug with three-​fourths of a cent worth of sil­ver and a quarter-cent’s worth cop­per sur­round­ing it.”

Con­gress then reduced the offi­cial weight of the cent, mak­ing an all-​copper coin more prac­ti­cal. The first early Amer­i­can cents were struck for actual cir­cu­la­tion in 1793 were a lit­tle larger than a mod­ern quar­ter coin.

The exper­i­men­tal coin is graced with a por­trait of “Miss Lib­erty” and the inscrip­tion “Lib­erty Par­ent of Soci­ety and Indus­try” on the front and a wreath and the words “United States of Amer­ica One Cent” on the back.